The past several decades humanitarian assistance has undergone many changes, from mostly focusing on natural disasters where westerners rushed personnel and relief items to the site of the disaster, to now where the vast majority of funding and personnel is provided in complex emergencies brought about by conflict and staffed by a more broadly international staff. The end of the Cold War, 9/11, the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, and especially Syria have engendered complexities for humanitarians that seem to dwarf past responses. For those who are tasked with leading humanitarian efforts, the combination of complex program challenges, counter-humanitarian groups, politics, and national security policy considerations, complicates leading humanitarian responses. Under such complicated and difficult circumstances, effective and considered leadership is needed more than ever at all levels of engagement. This course is cross-listed with Fletcher (DHP D234).