This course is designed for graduate students who are interested in understanding, interpreting, and designing studies related to precision nutrition. Precision nutrition includes three levels: (1) dietary recommendations based on guidelines for population subgroups by age, gender, and other social determinants, (2) individualized nutrition recommendations issued from deep and refined phenotyping, and (3) nutrition recommendations based on an individual’s genetic background. The profound differences among individuals in disease risk and biological response necessitates adopting multidimensional and dynamic dietary recommendations to achieve optimal effects. We will review the current evidence, uncertainties and controversies, and future directions in precision nutrition. Aspects relating to both scientific research in this area as well as implementation, including healthcare and business models of precision nutrition, will be discussed.