This course is designed for graduate students who are interested in understanding, interpreting, and designing studies and interventions related to precision nutrition. Precision nutrition includes three levels: (1) nutrition recommendation based on guidelines for population subgroups by age, gender and other social determinants, (2) individualized nutrition recommendation issued from a deep and refined phenotyping, and (3) genetic-directed nutrition based on individual’s genetic background. The profound differences among individuals in disease risk and biological response necessitates to adopt multidimensional and dynamic nutrition recommendations. We will review the current evidence, uncertainties and controversies, and future directions in precision nutrition. Aspects relating to both scientific research in this area as well as implementation, including healthcare and business models of precision nutrition, will be discussed.